- Other Apps
Describing Data & StatisticsThis short video looks at some statistical data related to youth unemployment in the UK and Europe. It contains useful vocabulary relevant to describing statistics and data and making comparisons, which is often required in Task 1 of the Academic IELTS Writing test and other English proficiency level tests. [see full transcript of video below]
This is a short video looking at the unemployed youth in the UK. Firstly we will look at how the level of youth unemployment, which covers those aged sixteen to twenty four, has changed since the nineteen eighties by bringing up this chart. This line splits the chart as between nineteen eighty-four and nineteen ninety-two we'll be showing a spring estimate in each year, and from nineteen ninety-two onwards estimates for every three month period. In the final quarter of two thousand and eleven the unemployment level stood at one point zero four million, the highest since the mid-nineteen eighties. If we lighten this line we can now look at the level excluding the young people who were in full time education in the final quarter of two thousand and eleven, there were seven hundred and thirty one thousand unemployed, the highest since around nineteen ninety four, although because more young people have been choosing to stay on in mainstream education, the population excluding full-time students has been falling over time. We can also look at the unemployment rate, we will use this diagram to explain what this is. If we look at the data for the end of two thousand and eleven, typically for every one hundred young people around thirty six are economically inactive, which means they're not looking for work, and remain outside of the labor market. Around fourteen are unemployed, so looking for work but cannot find any, and around half are in work. What the unemployment rate measures is the percentage of people unemployed in relation to all young people who are engaging in the labor market, so if we remove those who are inactive the rate is the number unemployed divided by the total employed or unemployed. So if we now move and to bring up this chart we can plot the unemployment rate since nineteen eighty four. In the final quarter of two thousand and eleven the rate stood at twenty two point two percent meaning that just over one in every five young people engaging in the labor market were unemployed, if we bring up this green-line to show the rate excluding full-time students again from nineteen eighty-four we can see it as a similar rate for those young people who have left full-time education as all young people. One thing that should be considered though is the impact of education, that is the rate can be affected by people choosing to stay on in education as the active population will fall. To understand this let's return to our previous diagram. Now, what we have seen over the last twenty or so years is that the increases in young people staying on in education and remaining inactive has meant larger falls in employment than unemployment so if we illustrate this effect on the diagram firstly by moving people who would have had a job into inactive and in education and also moving one who would have been unemployed into inactive if we then remove all those who are inactive as they are not engaging in the labor market we have the situation where the unemployed are now a larger percentage economically of the active population so the rate increases even though we have lowered unemployment by one person. Another thing we can look at to overcome this effect is the unemployment proportion which measures the percentage of young people unemployed in relation to all young people whether they're employed unemployed or inactive. If we bring up the previous chart and fade out the lines for the rate we can also plot the proportion, firstly from nineteen eighty-four and then from nineteen ninety two we can see the proportion is lower than the rate and it does not rise as fast as the rate at the onset of the recent recession, in the final quarter of two thousand and eleven the proportion stood at fourteen point two percent, so around one in every seven young people were unemployed. Here's the proportion excluding full-time students and you can see that it is slightly higher mainly because there are fewer who were inactive in this group and so overall a higher percentage are unemployed. We can also look at differences across Europe. Firstly, comparing the unemployment rate for some selected countries within the EU. Here, young people are defined as age fifteen to twenty four for comparisons across Europe. what we can see is that for the EU as a whole the rate in the third quarter of two thousand and eleven was twenty one point five percent for the UK the rate was marginally higher at twenty one point eight percent the highest rate was in Spain at forty one point seven percent. Bringing up the bars for some of the other countries the conceived at the lowest rate was in Austria apprenticeship schemes which offer work based training funded by the government and businesses helps to explain the relatively low unemployment rate in Austria and in other countries like Germany that have a similar model. Now bringing up this chart we can compare the proportion of young people age fifteen to twenty four unemployed and we see that for the EU as a whole listed in nine point one percent the UK proportion in the third quarter stood at twelve point seven percent, lower than what we talked about earlier, as that covered sixteen to twenty four-year-olds the highest proportion across the EU was again in Spain at nineteen point five percent and bringing up the remaining bars we see the lowest propulsion in Luxembourg at four point two percent. Finally we will look at the percentage unemployed depending on an individual's qualification and here only look at those who have left full time education starting with those who only have a GCSE you can see that unemployment is highest for those around sixteen to eighteen as people start looking for work, it generally falls as we move through the years as youngsters have more time to look for work. Looking at twenty four-year-olds in two thousand and eleven around fifteen percent educated to GCSE_ standard were unemployed. Now looking at those with A levels we see again unemployment highest for those who've recently left education. For twenty four-year-old educated to A level standard around seven percent were unemployed in two thousand and eleven. Finally, looking at those educated to degree standard we see the percentage unemployed falls sharply from ages twenty one two twenty four for those age twenty four with a degree around five percent were unemployed in two thousand and eleven.